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Why are planets always round?

The stars, planets, and many moons are extremely round. Why don’t they take other shapes?

KEY TAKEAWAYS

  • In our Solar System, all of the planets, many moons and smaller objects, and the Sun are all round. 
  • Above a size of approximately ~400 kilometers in radius, practically all rocky bodies are round; above ~200 kilometers in radius, most icy bodies are, too. 
  • There are no irregular objects out of hydrostatic equilibrium above a certain size, and physics can explain why.

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For more than 2,000 years, humanity has known that our planet, Earth, is round in shape. Just as the Moon and Sun appear round, so does not only Earth, but every planet in our Solar System. Even non-planets get in on the “round” action as well. Earth’s moon, Jupiter’s four largest moons, four of Saturn’s five largest, Uranus’s five largest and Neptune’s largest moons are all round, as well as the asteroid Ceres and numerous Kuiper belt and Oort cloud objects. Some smaller objects as little as ~200 km in radius are round, while Neptune’s Proteus and Saturn’s Iapetus, significantly larger, are not. Why is this? Why are other shapes not possible for the largest objects of all? That’s the question of Sgt. Randy Pennington, who wrote in:

“[Someone] asked me, ‘okay, so we’ve gone to space and traveled throughout the Solar System, and every planet that we’ve measured is round. But why?’ And I knew the planets were round, but I don’t know why. What would happen if a planet were shaped like a cube, or a pyramid, and why aren’t there any? But I know someone who’ll know… so why, Ethan, why are all the planets always round?”

It’s true: Every planet is round, and some are even rounder than others. Moreover, the stars are also always round, many moons and even some asteroids and Kuiper belt objects are round. Here’s the science of what’s going on.

planets
Under a size cutoff of 10,000 kilometers, objects appear to be round, pulled into hydrostatic equilibrium via their gravity and rotation, combined. However, once you go to planetary radii below ~800 kilometers, hydrostatic equilibrium, or even roundness, are no longer certainties. (Credit: Emily Lakdawalla; data from NASA/JPL, JHUAPL/SwRI, SSI, and UCLA/MPS/DLR/IDA)

The first thing to recognize is that normal matter can clump together in any amount. Individual atoms and even subatomic particles, like atomic nuclei or free electrons, exist in great abundances in stellar systems, as well as in interstellar space. Atoms also link up to form molecules, which can exist freely or as parts of other systems, and molecules themselves can clump together in amounts both great and small.

While there are nuclear and electromagnetic forces at play, both of which can easily overwhelm any other forces, when you get large amounts of mass together, it’s actually the weakest force of all that wins: gravity. If you get enough normal matter together in one place — regardless of the type, phase, origin, or nature of matter that you have — it will contract until it’s a single, gravitationally bound object.

When these objects are small, they tend to form minuscule, dustball-like structures. These grain-like particles aren’t actually held together via gravity, but rather via electrostatic forces. Simply bringing them close to the Sun, where they’re exposed to things like solar radiation and the solar wind, is enough to destroy them. If you want something more robust, you have to look to larger masses, enabling the force of gravity to become more dominant.

A schematic view of the strange peanut-shaped asteroid Itokawa. Itokawa is an example of a rubble-pile asteroid, but determinations of its density have revealed that it is likely a result of a merger between two bodies that have different compositions. It cannot pull itself into a round shape. (Credit: ESO, JAXA)

Take the above-pictured asteroid, for example: Itokawa. Itokawa is large enough to be its own gravitationally bound structure, weighing in at about ~30 million tons. It’s only a few hundred meters across on a side, but that’s enough to illustrate, at least at this scale, what gravitation can and cannot do. When you’ve accumulated more than a “grain” of matter but not more than a few million tons, here’s what you wind up with.

  • A “rubble pile” body. Instead of being one solid object, you get what looks like a collection of many different grains and pebbles, all held together through their mutual gravitation.
  • An object that isn’t differentiated. If you have a lot of mass together, you get a differentiation of your layers, where the densest materials sink to the center, forming a core, while the less-dense materials like a mantle or crust “float” atop them. Itokawa, and other objects of comparable masses and sizes, can’t do that.
  • A composition that shows the merger of different bodies. This one isn’t necessary, but it does happen frequently, and Itokawa is a spectacular example of it: the two portions of the “peanut” that composes Itokawa have dramatically different densities, indicating that these were once two separate objects that have now, gravitationally, merged together.

All told, these objects can hold themselves together gravitationally, but aren’t round.

Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko was imaged many times by the ESA’s Rosetta mission, where its irregular shape, volatile and outgassing surface, and cometary activity were all observed. The comet itself would have to be much larger and more massive to ever approach a “round” shape. (Credit: ESA/Rosetta/MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA)

Why don’t these small objects become round? It’s because the forces between atoms and molecules — governed by electrons and the electromagnetic force — are stronger than the force of gravity at this scale. Gravitation is always attractive, and pulls every particle of matter toward the center of mass of the objects of which they’re part. But there are also forces between atoms and molecules that determine their shape and configuration.

Ice crystals form in lattices; silicate rocks can form amorphously; dust particles can get compacted into soils or even solid shapes; etc. When a gravitational force is applied to a large body or collection of bodies, it exerts a pressure: a force over an area. If the pressure is great enough, it will override whatever initial conditions or shapes an object possesses to start with, and compel it to reshape itself into a more energetically stable configuration.

In the case of self-gravitating bodies, overcoming whatever random initial shape and configuration you start with is the first obstacle you face, and just how much mass is required depends on what your object is made out of. You can form a cube, a pyramid, or whatever potato-esque shape nature can dream up, but if you’re too massive, and the force of gravity is too large, you won’t maintain it, and will instead be pulled into a round shape.

This selection of asteroids and comets visited by spacecraft spans many orders of magnitude in size, from sub-kilometer bodies to objects more than 100 km on a side. However, none of these objects have enough mass to be pulled into a round shape. Gravitation can hold them together, but cannot reshape them. (Credit: Planetary Society – Emily Lakdawalla)

If you’re below about 1018 kilograms (a quadrillion tons or so), you’ll be below about 100 kilometers in radius, and that is always too small, or low in mass, to pull yourself into a round shape. Itokawa falls short of this threshold by a factor of many millions, as do most of the known asteroids.

However, if you can accumulate enough material to rise above this mass and size threshold, you’ve got a chance at rough “roundness.”

Saturn’s moon Mimas, for example, is slightly under 200 kilometers in radius, but is undoubtedly rounded. In fact, it’s the smallest astronomical body presently known that’s in a round shape owing to self-gravitation, and is the innermost large moon of Saturn, completing an orbit around the ringed planet in under 24 hours. Mimas is very low in density, only barely denser than water-ice, suggesting that it’s made up largely of volatiles: low-density ices that are easy to deform under the force of gravity.

Were Mimas composed largely of rocks or even metals, it would have to be larger and more massive to self-gravitate into a sphere: as large as 400 or 500 kilometers in radius, in the most extreme cases.

round
Mimas, as imaged here during the closest fly-by of Cassini in 2010, is only 198 kilometers in radius, but is quite clearly round owing to its self-gravitation. However, it lacks sufficient mass to truly be in hydrostatic equilibrium. (Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute)

Round, however, is only part of the story. You can still have large features that lead your object to depart from the shape that self-gravitation would otherwise lead to on a world that becomes rounded. Mimas, in fact, demonstrates this, with its Death Star-like appearance owing to its enormous crater: so large it’s almost a third of Mimas’s diameter. The crater walls are over 5 km high and the crater floor is more than 10 km deep; in fact the surface on the opposite side of Mimas from this crater is highly disrupted. The impact that created this crater must have nearly destroyed Mimas entirely, and its gravitation is insufficient to pull it back into a more spherical shape.

This example illustrates an important distinction: the difference between being “round” and being in “hydrostatic equilibrium.” Self-gravitation can pull you into a round shape easily if you’re over 200 kilometers in radius and icy or over 400 kilometers in radius and rocky. But being in hydrostatic equilibrium is a more difficult bar to clear: you have to have your shape primarily determined by a combination of self-gravitation and rotation: the same shape a self-gravitating drop of spinning liquid water would take on.

The four largest asteroids, all shown here, have been imaged with NASA’s Dawn mission and the ESO’s SPHERE instrument. Ceres, the largest asteroid, is the smallest known body in hydrostatic equilibrium. Vesta and Pallas are not, but Hygeia may yet be. (Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA/MPS/DLR/IDA; ESO)

The smallest body verified to be in hydrostatic equilibrium is the largest asteroid: the dwarf planet Ceres, with a radius of about 470 kilometers. On the other hand, the largest body known not to be in hydrostatic equilibrium is Saturn’s bizarre moon Iapetus, with a radius of around 735 km, whose planet-spanning equatorial ridge would never occur if gravity and rotation alone determined its shape.

For a solid body like a rocky planet or moon, the big question is whether your gravity can make you behave in a plastic fashion. In physics and materials science, plastic doesn’t mean “made out of the by-products of oil,” but rather describes how certain materials deform. When you subject a material to stresses arising from tension, compression, bending, or torsion, those materials will normally elongate, compress, buckle, twist, or otherwise deform.

If your material deforms plastically, those distortions and deformations can become permanent. If you have enough mass together in one place, gravitation will be sufficient to pull you back into hydrostatic equilibrium, so that your overall shape is once again determined by your rotation and gravity alone. If not, you can still be round, but not in hydrostatic equilibrium.

These two global images of Iapetus show its large impact feature and its equatorial ridge, despite its obvious roundness. In concert with its other properties, these features demonstrate that Iapetus is not in hydrostatic equilibrium, making it the largest world in the Solar system to not be. (Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute)

For icy objects, you can be round at about 200 kilometers, but you won’t be in hydrostatic equilibrium until you’re about 400 kilometers in radius. For rocky objects, you won’t be round unless your radius is about 400 kilometers, but you might not reach hydrostatic equilibrium unless your radius is greater: up to 750 kilometers may be needed.

Objects that live in that in-between region could either be in hydrostatic equilibrium or not, and we’re not certain about the status of many of the known ones. Rock-and-ice Hygeia, with a radius of only 215 km, might be in hydrostatic equilibrium. Saturn’s moon Enceladus, at 252 kilometers, is close, but the asteroids Pallas and Vesta, at 256 and 263 km, severely depart from even being round. Pluto’s large moon Charon, with a radius of 606 km, might not have quite achieved hydrostatic equilibrium. The largest two Uranian moons, Titania and Oberon are probably in hydrostatic equilibrium; the next three, Umbriel, Ariel, and Miranda, may or may not be.

However, once you get up to about 800 kilometers in radius, everything known above that size is not only round, it’s in hydrostatic equilibrium as well.

Saturn, as photographed here by Cassini during the 2008 equinox, isn’t just round, but is in hydrostatic equilibrium. With its low density and rapid rotation, Saturn is the most flattened planet in the Solar System, with an equatorial diameter that’s more than 10% larger than its polar diameter. (Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute)

The dwarf planets Haumea, Eris, and Pluto (along with Makemake, at only 715 km in radius) are all in hydrostatic equilibrium. Neptune’s Triton, Earth’s Moon, Saturn’s Titan, and the four Galilean moons of Jupiter are all in hydrostatic equilibrium as well. So are all eight of the planets, and so is the Sun. In fact, we’re pretty confident that this is a universal rule: if you’re more than about 800 kilometers in radius, regardless of your composition, you’re going to be in hydrostatic equilibrium.

But here’s a fun fact: Many objects — including many planets and stars — rotate so quickly that it’s very clear that they aren’t round, but rather take on a squashed shape known as an oblate spheroid. Earth, due to its 24 hour rotation, isn’t quite a perfect sphere, but has a larger equatorial radius (6378 km) than a polar radius (6356 km). Saturn’s rotation is even faster, completing a rotation in just 10.7 hours, and its equatorial radius (60,268 km) is almost one full “Earth” larger than its polar radius (54,364 km).

The Moon and Mercury, however, are both incredibly slow rotators. They’re only ~2 km larger in radius in the equatorial direction than the polar one, making them very spherical rocky planets. But do you know which body is the most perfect sphere in the Solar System? The Sun. With an average radius of 696,000 kilometers, its equatorial radius is only ~5 km larger than its polar radius, making it a perfect sphere to 99.9993% precision.

round
This image of the Sun, taken on April 20, 2015, shows a number of features common to all stars: magnetic loops, prominences, plasma filaments, and regions of higher and lower temperatures. However, the slowly-rotating Sun is the most perfect sphere in the Solar System, with a polar and equatorial diameter that are identical to 99.9993% precision. (Credit: NASA/Solar Dynamics Observatory)

Although there are many factors at play in determining the shape of an object, there are really only three main categories that bodies fall into.

  1. If you’re too low in mass and/or too small for your composition, you’ll simply take on whatever shape you happened to have by the luck-of-the draw in forming; practically all objects below ~200 kilometers in radius have this property.
  2. If you’re more massive, that initial shape will get reconfigured into a round one, a threshold that you cross between ~200 and 800 km in radius, depending on your composition. However, if a major distortive event happens, like an impact, a deposition, or a change to your orbital properties, you will likely keep an imprinted “memory” of that event.
  3. Finally, above ~800 kilometers in radius, you’ll be in hydrostatic equilibrium: massive enough so that gravity and rotation primarily determine your shape, with only small imperfections superimposed atop that.

In terms of mass, 0.1% of Earth’s mass will do it; bring that much together and you’ll always be in hydrostatic equilibrium. Roundness, on its own, isn’t quite enough to make you a planet, but all planets have more than enough mass to pull themselves into a round shape. The irresistible force of gravity is enough to ensure it couldn’t be any other way.


SPACE WEATHER forecasters are braced for a cloud of hot plasma and magnetic field from the Sun to lash the planet.

Solar storm warming: Breaking News image

SPACE WEATHER forecasters are braced for a cloud of hot plasma and magnetic field from the Sun to lash the planet.

Earth’s ‘magnetic song’ captured during solar storm

A so-called coronal mass ejection (CME) was seen escaping the Sun on Wednesday and may deliver a “glancing blow” to the planet. CMEs are large clouds of charged particles and magnetic field that stream from the Sun’s corona – the outermost layer of the star’s atmosphere. According to the US Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC), CMEs can reach the planet at speeds between 250 km per second and 3,000 km per second.

Astronomers at SpaceWeather.com have now warned yesterday’s CME could reach the planet by Saturday.

The warning comes after a large filament erupted from the Sun’s southern hemisphere.

The filament split the Sun’s atmosphere wide open and released a cloud of debris into space.

The website’s astronomers wrote: “Imagine a canyon 50,000 miles long with towering walls of red-hot plasma.

Solar storm warming: Breaking News image

A coronal mass ejection may strike the planet on Saturday

Sun fact sheet: Incredible facts about the Sun

“Yesterday, there was one on the Sun.

“It formed when a filament of magnetism lifted off from the southern hemisphere.

“The erupting filament split the Sun’s atmosphere, carving out the canyon as it ascended.

“The glowing walls remained intact for more than six hours after the explosion.”

The debris trailing from the blast was photographed by NASA’s STEREO-A spacecraft and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO).

Space Weather added: “First-look data suggest it might deliver a glancing blow to Earth’s magnetic field on November 28.”

When CMEs interact with the Earth’s magnetosphere – the region of space dominated by Earth’s magnetic field – they may induce a geomagnetic storm (solar storm).

The SWPC explained: “A geomagnetic storm is a major disturbance of Earth’s magnetosphere that occurs when there is a very efficient exchange of energy from the solar wind into the space environment surrounding Earth.

“These storms result from variations in the solar wind that produces major changes in the currents, plasmas, and fields in Earth’s magnetosphere.”

NASA image of the Sun

Solar storm effects on tech - NASA infographic

The strongest solar storms are typically associated with the arrival of a CME.

And depending on the CME’s strength, scientists will rank the resulting storm on a scale of “G1 Minor” to “G5 Extreme”.

At the low end of the scale, Minor storms can cause some disturbance to satellite operations and weak power grid fluctuations may occur.

Weak storms can also create beautiful aurora at northerly latitudes.

Don’t Miss: Near-Total Lunar Eclipse, Snow Moon, Comet Leonard, Geminid Meteor Shower

The next full Moon will be early on Friday morning, November 19, 2021, appearing opposite the Sun (in Earth-based longitude) at 3:58 a.m. EST. While this will be on Friday for much of the Earth, it will be Thursday night from Alaska’s time zone westward to the International Date Line in the Pacific Ocean. The Moon will appear full for about three days around this time, from Wednesday night through Saturday morning.

“This should be a good month for skywatching, with Venus, Jupiter, and Saturn in the evening sky, a potentially visible comet, and one of the best meteor showers of the year!”
— Gordon Johnston

Near-Total Lunar Eclipse

The Moon will be so close to opposite the Sun on November 19 that it will pass through the southern part of the shadow of the Earth for a nearly total lunar eclipse. The partial shadow of the Earth will begin falling on the upper left part of the Moon at 1:02:09 a.m. EST, but the slight dimming of the Moon will not be noticeable until the full shadow of the Earth begins falling on the upper part of the Moon at 2:18:41 a.m. The arc of the shadow of the round Earth will spread across the Moon until the peak of the eclipse at 4:02:53 a.m. when over 97% of the Moon will be in full shadow and only a small sliver of the left side of the Moon will shine in the partial shadow of the Earth.


On November 19, 2021 (late evening of the 18th in some time zones), the Moon passes into the shadow of the Earth, creating a partial lunar eclipse so deep that it can reasonably be called almost total. Credit: NASA’s Scientific Visualization Studio

Aurora Borealis

A “moderate” geomagnetic storm is forecast for the Earth on Monday, which could cause a few fluctuations to the power grid at higher latitudes and could also affect some satellites, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) said.

The northern lights, aka the aurora borealis, could also be visible in some parts of the nation Monday night in northern-tier states from New England to Washington, according to SpaceWeather.com.

The storm is rated a “G2,” which is the second level of NOAA’s five-level storm scale. (G1 storms are minor, while G5s are considered extreme.) 

The storm is courtesy of a solar flare: On Saturday, a solar flare from a sunspot hurled a coronal mass ejection toward Earth, which is causing the geomagnetic storm Monday, SpaceWeather.com said.  

High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms and transformer damage could be possible if the storm lasts long enough, NOAA said. 

Amazing Hubble telescope photo shows space ‘sword’ piercing huge celestial ‘heart’

A flaming blue sword seems to pierce a giant cosmic heart in a gorgeous new photo captured by the Hubble Space Telescope.

Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, B. Nisini

This image by the Hubble Space Telescope’s Wide Field Camera 3 instrument, features the Herbig-Haro object HH111, which lies about 1,300 light-years from Earth. Herbig-Haro objects consist of young stars blasting superheated jets through surrounding clouds of dust and gas. 

The “sword” is composed of twin jets of superheated, ionized gas that are rocketing into space from opposite poles of a newborn star called IRAS 05491+0247. The “heart” is the cloud of leftover dust and gas surrounding the protostar, according to Hubble team members.

This dramatic interaction between jets and cloud creates an uncommon celestial sight known as a Herbig-Haro object. The one photographed here by Hubble is named HH111, and it lies about 1,300 light-years from Earth, in the constellation Orion.

Hubble captured the image using its Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instrument, which observes in both optical and infrared (heat) wavelengths of light. 

“Herbig-Haro objects actually release a lot of light at optical wavelengths, but they are difficult to observe because their surrounding dust and gas absorb much of the visible light,” European Space Agency (ESA) officials wrote in a description of the image, which was released today (Aug. 30).

“Therefore, the WFC3’s ability to observe at infrared wavelengths — where observations are not as affected by gas and dust — is crucial to observing [Herbig]-Haro objects successfully,” they added.

Hubble, a joint mission of NASA and ESA, launched to low Earth orbit aboard the space shuttle Discovery in April 1990. The first images the iconic observatory captured were fuzzy, a problem that team members soon determined was caused by a flaw in Hubble’s 7.9-foot-wide (2.4 meters) primary mirror.

Spacewalking astronauts fixed that issue in December 1993, and Hubble was further upgraded and maintained over the course of four more servicing missions. The WFC3 instrument was installed during the last of these Hubble-bound space shuttle flights, which took place in May 2009.

Hubble continues to provide amazing views of the cosmos, but it has begun to show its age, and, without the shuttle, astronauts can no longer feasibly access the observatory. (It’s technically possible that a crewed vehicle such as SpaceX’s Crew Dragon capsule could reach Hubble, but that idea apparently has not been seriously investigated.) The telescope has overcome a number of glitches recently, including a computer problem that closed its supersharp eye for more than a month this summer.

By Mike Wall via Space.com

SpaceX’s Dragon cargo ship docks at space station in time for astronaut’s birthday

SpaceX’s Dragon cargo ship docks at space station in time for astronaut’s birthday

“No one’s ever sent me a spaceship for my birthday before.”

SpaceX’s Dragon CRS-23 cargo ship is seen with a bright blue Earth as a backdrop by a camera on the International Space Station during its docking approach on Aug. 30, 2021. (Image credit: NASA)

SpaceX’s latest Dragon cargo ship arrived at the International Space Station (ISS) today (Aug. 30) to deliver an experimental robotic arm and a wealth of other research equipment and supplies just in time for one astronaut’s birthday.

“Congratulations to NASA and SpaceX teams and many thanks. No one’s ever sent me a spaceship for my birthday before,” NASA astronaut Megan McArthur radioed Mission Control just after docking. It’s her 50th birthday today. 

“That’s a most excellent birthday present,” NASA’s Mission Control in Houston replied.

The gumdrop-shaped Dragon docked with the station’s Harmony module at 10:30 a.m. EDT (1430 GMT) today, ending a 32-hour-orbital chase. The station and Dragon were sailing 264 miles (425 kilometers) above western Australia at the time.

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Dragon launched atop a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket early Sunday morning (Aug. 29), kicking off the company’s 23rd robotic resupply mission to the orbiting lab for NASA. The uncrewed Dragon is packed with more than 4,800 lbs. (2,200 kilograms) of supplies and scientific experiments, including a super-dexterous new robotic arm that will get a microgravity test on the orbiting lab.

“This investigation supports development of robots to support crew intravehicular activities and, eventually, extravehicular activities,” team members wrote in a description of the experiment, which is called the GITAI S1 Robotic Arm Tech Demo. “Space robotics also could support on-orbit servicing, assembly and manufacturing tasks, lowering the costs of such tasks and contributing to increased commercial activity in space.”

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Another experiment will test how a tiny drug-delivering implant performs in microgravity, and yet another will gauge the responses of various materials to the space environment.

There are now two Dragons parked at the ISS: the newly arrived cargo capsule and a crewed variant, which brought NASA astronauts McArthur and Shane Kimbrough, Japanese spaceflyer Akihiko Hoshide and the European Space Agency’s Thomas Pesquet to the orbiting lab in April.

Those four astronauts are scheduled to return to Earth in November while their crewmates (NASA astronaut Mark Vande Hei and Russian cosmonauts Pyotr Dubrov and Oleg Novitskiy) remain aboard to continue their mission. The cargo Dragon will come down sooner; it’s scheduled to spend about a month at the ISS, NASA officials have said.

Both versions of Dragon survive re-entry, making ocean splashdowns under parachutes. This capability separates the resupply Dragon from other currently operational cargo craft, which burn up in Earth’s atmosphere when their missions are done.

Don’t Miss “Prime Time” for the Perseid Meteor Shower

Don’t Miss “Prime Time” for the Perseid Meteor Shower (By NASA)

Astronomer Fred Bruenjes recorded a series of many 30 second long exposures spanning about six hours on the night of August 11 and early morning of August 12, 2004 using a wide angle lens. Combining those frames which captured meteor flashes, he produced this dramatic view of the Perseids of summer. There are 51 Perseid meteors in the composite image, including one seen nearly head-on. Credit: Fred Bruenjes

The best-known meteor shower of the year should be a good time this year on the peak night of August 11, with no bright Moon to interfere.

August brings the best-known meteor shower of the year, the Perseids. This annual meteor shower happens each year as Earth crosses the debris trail of comet Swift-Tuttle. Most of these meteors are grains of dust up to the size of a pea, and they create fabulous “shooting stars” as they burn up in Earth’s atmosphere.

We experience the Perseid meteor shower each year as Earth passes through the stream of debris left behind in the orbit of Comet Swift-Tuttle. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

The Perseids have been observed for at least 2,000 years and are associated with the comet Swift-Tuttle, which orbits the sun once every 133 years. Every August, the Earth passes through a cloud of the comet’s orbital debris. This debris field — mostly created hundreds of years ago — consists of bits of ice and dust shed from the comet which burn up in Earth’s atmosphere to create one of the premier meteor showers of the year.h

Meteor showers appear to radiate from a point called the radiant, though they can streak across the sky anywhere above you. For the Perseids, this point is in the constellation Perseus. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Although Perseids can be seen from mid-July through late August, the most likely time to see any is a couple of days on either side of the peak. This year the peak falls on the night of August 11th, and into the pre-dawn hours of August 12th. (Think of that as “prime time” for the Perseids.) Under really dark skies, you could see almost one per minute near the time of maximum activity.

This year’s peak night for the Perseids benefits from a Moon that sets early in the evening, so it won’t interfere with the fainter meteors. But before it sets that evening, be sure to check out that gorgeous crescent Moon in the west after sunset with the brilliant planet Venus.

On the night the Perseids peak, check out a beautiful scene with the crescent Moon near Venus in the west following sunset. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

To enjoy the Perseid meteor shower, just find a safe, dark location away from bright city lights. Lie down or recline with your feet facing roughly toward the north and look up. The meteors appear to radiate from around the constellation Perseus, but they can streak across the sky anywhere above you.

NASA also has a way for you to catch some Perseids online. NASA’s Meteor Watch team plans a live stream overnight on August 11. Visit this link for more details. 

NASA wants paid volunteers to spend a year living in a 3D-printed Martian habitat in Texas, where they will carry out spacewalks and research using VR tech

An artist’s rendering of astronauts and human habitats on Mars. NASA/JPL

NASA wants paid volunteers to spend a year living in a 3D-printed Martian habitat in Texas, where they will carry out spacewalks and research using VR tech

NASA is looking for applicants to spend a whole year pretending they live on Mars.

The 1,700 square-foot Martian surface is located inside the Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas.

These types of simulations are called analog missions. Insider’s Alyssa Pagano reported on the challenges of an eight-month analog mission in 2018.

For the newly announced mission, applications opened on Friday for four people to live on Mars Dune Alpha, a 3D-printed habitat. The US agency is planning three such experiments, with the first one due to begin next fall.’

The paid volunteers will take part in a simulated Martian exploration mission, complete with “spacewalks.” They will only have limited contact with their families and friends back home, and will have to learn to cope with restricted resources and equipment failures.

The news comes as the space agency prepares to eventually transport astronauts to the Red Planet as part of NASA’s Artemis program. That mission aims to set up a station on the moon and eventually send humans to Mars.

Lead scientist Grace Douglas said in a press release: “The analog is critical for testing solutions to meet the complex needs of living on the Martian surface.”

She added: “Simulations on Earth will help us understand and counter the physical and mental challenges astronauts will face before they go.”

Applicants will need to hold a master’s degree in engineering, maths, or computer science and have at least two years of pilot experience.

The agency also specifies that only US citizens or permanent residents qualify for the experiment. They have to be aged between 30-35 and in good physical health and must not be prone to motion sickness.

Sky News reported that Canadian astronaut Chris Hadfield said the mission would mean “incredible freedom” in a “year away from the demands of your normal life.”

Read the original article on Business Insider

SpaceX Just Mounted Starship on Top of the Super Heavy Booster

SpaceX Just Mounted Starship on Top of the Super Heavy Booster (by Victor Tangermann via Off World)

Huge Stack

For the first time, SpaceX has finally stacked a Starship spacecraft prototype on top of a Super Heavy booster.

The dizzying tower stands at 475 feet tall including the orbital launch stand, easily as tall as a skyscraper. In fact, as TechCrunchpoints out, it’s the tallest rocket ever assembled.

It’s a major milestone for the Elon Musk-led company. We’ve never been closer to the space company’s long-awaited first test launch into space.

It’s also the best-ever look we’ve had at SpaceX’s vision for the future of space exploration — and space-based, long-haul transportation.

Going Orbital

The giant stack at the company’s test facilities in South Texas will first be disassembled again for further tests and work before its maiden voyage into orbit, according to TechCrunch.

It’s still unclear when that first orbital test launch will take place. The Federal Aviation Administration is still in the midst of an environmental review that could drag on for weeks if not months.

Whether Musk is willing to wait for that review to be completed is another question. It wouldn’t be the first time the space company went ahead without getting a go-ahead from the regulator.

Either way, the upcoming orbital launch will be a sight to behold. A stunning 29 Raptor engines will ignite at once to deliver the megastructure into the upper atmosphere, where Starship will separate and ignite its own boosters to cruise into orbit.